The four temperaments is a personality typing system. This is a compilation of things I learned from a lot of different websites and such over the past few years; feel free to do some research if you want more in-depth analysis of the temperaments. In the four temperaments, there are two pairs of opposite personalities.
Melancholy and Sanguine:
The first temperament is Melancholy. Melancholy people are organized and thoughtful, and value quality. When they do work, it tends to be excellent. In chaotic situations, however, they tend to break down. If amelancholy person’s house is disgusting, and they don’t have time to clean the whole thing, they might not do anything at all.
Another trait of Melancholy people is that they tend to be “down” a lot. They don’t get big spikes of energy often, and they can be sad. This isn’t always a negative trait.
The second temperament is Sanguine, the opposite of melancholy. Sanguine people tend to be spontaneous and social, and value freedom. They’re less organized than the Melancholy people, which can be good in uncertain situations. They can also be chaotic, and not follow deadlines or commitments well, because they like to live more flexibly.
Sanguine people tend to be very friendly and upbeat, which makes them naturally better at meeting new people. They often can make people feel comfortable and engaged. They also love to be in the center of attention, which can be fun, or annoying, depending on the circumstance.
Choleric and Phlegmatic:
The third temperament is Choleric. Cholerics are leaders, and value control. They are great at taking a group of confused people, and get them working together under their leadership. Cholerics can be pushy about getting their way, but usually they are blunt and honest about their goals.
The fourth temperament is Phlegmatic, the opposite of Choleric. Phlegmatics are followers, and value peace. They strongly desire to avoid conflict, and prefer to avoid decision making. They tend to get along well with others, because they are laid back. They can be overly easy to sway, and struggle to self-motivate.